The World’s diamond deposits

For centuries, India was known as the world’s only source of diamonds. Then Brazil alluvial deposits were discovered in the 1700s. But both countries were over shadowed by South Africa’s enormous primary deposits, which appeared in the late 1800s. Today, because of advances in exploration technology, diamond deposits are no longer limited to one or two places.

New diamond sources came to light in the late 1900s. Canada yielded some especially promising discoveries. These development indicate that the world’s supply of diamonds will satisfy consumer hunger for more decade to come.


South America

About 1730, Brazil replaced India as the world’s main source of diamonds. It kept that position until 1870, when production started in South Africa. Because Brazil is a country with wet, tropical climate, century of water erosion uncovered most of its diamond pipes and washed away their surface indications. As a result, Brazil’s diamond supply is exclusively alluvial. In fact, kimberlite pipes weren’t discovered there until 1968, and none have yet proven to be economically diamondiferous. Brazil is mined mostly by individuals or small groups.

Other part of South America, like Venezuela and Guyana, also yield all alluvial diamonds. Mining began in the early 1900s, but advances in mining technology made the 1900s the most productive years. Most of the yield from both locations has been industrial grade, with a few notable diamond, which they called El Liberdador. Other gem-quality diamonds from Venezuela include a rainbow of fancy colors: pinks, blues, greens, and even some black diamonds.



The african continent has a wide range of geographic features-mountains, plain deserts, rain forests, and seashore. Underlying it all are several archons, the oldest and most potentially diamondiferous of geologic structures. It’s no wonder Africa has the most diverse diamond sources. Its enormous pipes are legendary in the diamond industry. Its alluvial supplies are plentiful. And its marine deposits are abundant and hold great promise for the future.


South Africa

Diamonds were discovered in South Africa in the late 1800s. At first, all South African diamonds came from alluvial sources. But once prospectors un earthed the first major diamond pipes, primary sources joined the secondary ones. White the country no longer leads the world in diamond production, it’s still a very important source. The first deposit, discovered between 1869 and 1871, were clustered around the town of Kimberly. The mines that resulted formed the basic of De Beers consolidated Mines Ltd., and marked the birth of the modern diamond industry.

Those early South African mines produced about 2 to 3 million carats a year-about 95 % of total world production-from 1872 to 1903. Amazingly, four of those mines  are still operating, although their supplies are dwindling. Today, their combined total is only about 0.7% of the world production.

Currently, the production in South Africa is almost 90% from kimberlite pipes. Three of the most important are Cullinan, called Premier when it was established in 1903; Finsch, established in the mid 1960s; and Venetia, established in 1991. The Cullinan mine has produced hundreds of diamonds weighing 100 carats or more: One quarter of all diamonds over 400 carats from this deposit. It’s also known for producing some rare and valuable blue diamonds.

The mine gained international fame in 1905 when the world’s rough diamond-the Cullinan was discovered. Named after the mine’s owner, this giant rough weighed 3106 cts. The Cullinan retains the title as the largest gem diamond ever found. A 599-ct rough crystal found there in 1986 was fashoined into the 273.85-ct Centenary Diamond, named to commemorate De Beers’ 100th anniversary.


The Cullinan Diamond

The big pear is the Cullinan!


Finsch mine was worked as the open pit site until 1990 when it was converted to an underground operation. It holds the distinction of being the most technologically advanced underground mine in the world. It features state-of-the-art automated and remote-controlled ore handling, transportation, and rock crushing system.

Venetia is South Africa’s newest and perhaps most significant mine. Discovered in the mid 1970s, it went into production in 1991. The Venetia produces between 4 to 5 million carats of diamond annually, about 40% gem quality. The total volume of diamonds and the high percentage of gem-quality stones rank the Venetia as one of the top mines in the world.


Africa’s Atlantic Coast

One of the world’s most important marine deposits lies along the Atlantic coast of Africa, in the country of Namibia. Mining of marine diamonds stared there in 1909, when it was still known as German Southwest Africa. There were no diamond bearing pipes near the shore, so geologists believe that the diamond came from the kimberlites in South Africa’s interior. As the Kimberlites eroded over the past 100 million years, the diamonds in them were washed into nearby waterways. From there they drained into ancient branches of the Orange River, which carried the diamonds west to the Atlantic ocean.

Tumbled and battered for centuries by stream, rivers, and ocean tides, the industrial grades and heavily included stones broke up and disappeared. As a result, a large percentage of the stones mined from the beaches are gem quality. The largest mining company in Namibia is Namdeb Diamond Corporation-a partnership between De Beers and the Namibian government. Other mining companies in Namibia include DBM.

As diamonds on shore begin to diminish, advances in ocean-mining technology are making it possible to dredge deeper, both near the coast and in the deep seeas offshore. This should keep Nmibia producing for many years to come.


Central Africa

The inland countries of central Africa-Botswana, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire-are also participants in Africa’s diamond trade. Of the three, onlyBotswana has a sizeable yield from primary sources.The country has two of the largest known kimberlite pipes, Orapa, and Jwenang. Botswana’s third mine is the Letlhakane. All three mines are open=pit operations. Debswana, a joint partnership between Botswana government and De Beers, operate them.

Orapa, began operating in 1971, is located in the northern region of Botswana. And currently the largest economically important kimberlite pipe in the world, yield over 6 million carats  per year.

Jwaneng, was started in 1982 in the Kalahari Desert in the southern of Botswana. Despite its name, which means ” a place of small stones,” the mine provides approximately 22 % of the world diamond production by value-about 1.5 billion. And, at an estimated 12.7 million carats covered in 1998, it ranks as the  third largest producer in terms of total carats per year.

The two smaller pipes located about 30 miles from the Orapa site make up the Letlhakane mine operation, which started production in the 1976, although production volume from this mine is about 1 million carats per year-considerably less than Orapa’s output-the ratio between gem and industrial stones is impressive :80% gem, 20% industrial.

Diamond in Republic of Congo and Angola are almost all alluvial, but mines there are plagued by illegal diggings and unstable politics.


West and East Africa

The diamonds from West Africa are almost all Alluvial. In Guinea, diamonds are found in scattered deposits in the tropical rain forests that cover the country. In Sierra Leon, diamonds are found nearby everywhere, and about 70%of them are gem quality.  In certain portions of Ghana, the richness of the yield is almost unbelievable ; one 160-acre plot once yielded about 3 million carats. but the stones are very small, and about 90% are industrial grade.  In Tanzania, a country of Eastern Africa , Canadian geologist John Thorburn Wiiliamson spent years searching for the rich pipe deposits he was convinced were there. Finally, he discovered an enormous pipe at Mwadui, where serious production began in 1945. Most of the richer sectionwere mined out by the mid-1990s, but mine is producing again, and over half the total putpu is gem quality.



Diamond colors

The Origin of color grades

Color is a defining factor while valuing diamonds. It can range from colorless to yellow, brown,  and so on. The more colorless a diamond, the greater its rarity and value. The individual colors of diamonds were classified and described very early on. In the United States, the country with historically the biggest share of the diamond market, a system of diamond grading was first devised at the start of the 1930s with its own terms for color designation.

The various names of colors, which originated from the then newly discovered sources in South Africa, are still known even today as the “old terms”. These were replaced over time in the USA and in other countries by figure-based or letter-based systems as well as by other descriptions. The “old-terms” were based on a colorless to cape series including ten color grades with imperceptible transitions:

  • Jager
  • River
  • Top Wesselton
  • Wesselton
  • Top Crystal
  • Crystal
  • Top Cape
  • Cape
  • Light Yellow
  • Yellow

Most of the old terms are derived from the names of former diamond mines, without defining the color grade more precisely.

The term Jager comes from the name of a South African diamond mine the Jagerfontein Mine. This mine yield the very finest blue white diamonds. In the first attempts at a definition of color, however, it was realized that the color stage Jager did not represent a slight blue suffusion but that the visible bluish coloration present was caused by another phenomenon; fluorescence. It was observed in fact that some diamonds exhibit different color hue in daylight and artificial light, and it was deduced from this that the weak blue hue arose from a concentration of ultra-violet rays in natural daylight. The term “Jager” as a description of the highest color grade was therefore removed from the scale and River took over first place. For diamonds which were found in rivers and alluvial deposits, the term “River” was adopted. These stones were usually very transparent and better color than diamonds found in pipes.


In the 1950s GIA established a color-grading system for diamonds. Because many of the color-grading systems that came before t used vaguely defined trade terms, GIA wanted its system to clarify the color-grade categories. In the beginning, GIA planned the system so that only jewelry professionals would use it.

They started the scale with the letter ‘D’ hoping that the letter’s poor reputation in the American school grading system would keep it from being used with customers. Today, professionals and consumers alike use the GIA Color Scale. It has maintained its reliability and become the most widely recognized and well-respected color-grading system in the world.

To provide a basis for color comparison, GIA assembled a set of MASTERSTONES. It took years to find diamonds that represented all letters in the GIA color-grading system. Since the 1950s, additional masterstone sets have been assembled by carefully matching them to the original set. This has helped the consistency and accuracy of the GIA system.


The masterstones represent known depths of color, ranging from colorless through gradually deepening tints of yellow. Masterstones graded as whole grades, such as H or I, represent the least amount of color in that grade. In addition to grading the color of diamonds, other factors such as the Shade/Hue, inherent Fluorescence in a diamond, as also its color, are factors that can have an influence on the overall color of a diamond, and are therefore critical to the grading too.

The GIA Color Scale

The GIA color scale begins with the letter D (colorless) and continues through the alphabet to Z (light yellow, brown, or gray). A diamond color grade is based on its tone and saturation and requires an assessment of its absence of color.


where to sell my luxury watches online?

Where to sell watches online?


Are you ready to sell your luxury watch for cash or upgrade to the new style but not sure or don’t know where to start? There are a lot of places online that buy luxury watches. The first question comes to your mind is “Can i trust them to sell my watch to?”. While you can look for the local jewelry and watch buyers. You will most likely running out your of options. Selling your luxury watch online for cash is the best option and save time and at the convenience of your home, quick, secure, and confidential.

The best place to sell watches

We have researched and reviewed these Top online buyers.



These companies must be accredited and rated at least A to A+ by Better Business Bureau is known as BBB, and have credible online customers/testimonials previously and currently. And please be sure to read their reviews on Google+ and FaceBook. Our #1 pick for luxury watch buyers is WP Diamonds.  And our #2 pick falls onto DBI, diamond Buyers international


Competitive Prices


Look for online luxury watch buyers who are truly  experts in their field. And have a long outstanding reputations and connections in luxury watches. Pricing a luxury watch requires an experienced luxury watch professional with the knowledge in the industry.




It is very very important that you feel comfortable when sending your watch and every step in the process of selling your luxury watch. When request a free kit to send in your luxury watch make sure that the kit  is insured and free of charge to mail, Fedex overnight trackable. And WP Diamonds provides you with Free Fedex overnight and fully insured. Even if you decline the offer WP Diamonds will mail your watch back to you with all the same safety measures for free. And they also have appointment available incase you need to the experts face to face in a safe secure modern environment.


Speedy payment


Quick pay is really important. You want to have  payment options, check, wire transfer, PayPal or cash (by appointment only) within 24 hours right after the final offer accepted.

Both of these online luxury watch buyers have A+ rated by BBB company and Google+ reviews, and have long outstanding reputation, WP Diamonds has expert watch buyers available for appointments in New York, Dallas, LA, and Chicago, and you can also opt to send your luxury watch in via their Free fully insured overnight Fedex trackable shipping service.

Diamond buyers

Holidays are here, new year is right at the corner, some of us need extra cash for the holidays. Take this opportunity by selling the old diamond jewelry that have been sitting in the draw or in the safe for quick cash.

Seller’s guide

Selling diamonds/diamond jewelry online has never been easier nowaday. Not only simple but also you can get the most out of your diamonds. The diamond buyer will give you the highest estimate possible without seeing or offer for your diamonds.  And you need to be as precise as possible and a GIA certificate helps make this offer much more accurate. Then request your Free kit with prepaid FedEx overnight envelope and instructions on how to safely send in your diamond jewelry. The next step is use the prepaid Fedex overnight envelope to send your diamonds to the diamond buyer and the shipment is insured for USD5,000 maximum, with higher insurance is available upon request. The diamond is then evaluated and the final offer is provided to you by email and/or phone call If you want to sell it for the price they offer then they will send you a check, direct deposit, or Paypal payment of your choosing instantly within 24 hours. Otherwise they will send you the diamond back and it is fully insured at no cost, and no questions asked.

1. Read the diamond buyer testimonials

Not all companies are the same when it comes to customer service and trust, especially when dealing with big ticket items. This is the reason we have searched and reviewed the top cash for diamonds online and ranked them on our website. And ranked #1, read the success stories ranked #2, and last but not least ranked #3 We only recommend companies that exchange diamonds for cash and who have a good customer service history and businesses who are accredited and rated by the Better Business Bureau(BBB).

2. Start a free appraisal

This is typically performed by completing the appraisal form on the diamond buyer’s website. A representative will contact you or you may call them to discuss your items with them directly. Diamond buyers can usually provide a ballpark figure as to what you can expect to receive for your diamond jewelry. If you have a GIA, IGI, HRD, AGS, or EGLUSA certificate the estimated price will be more accurate. The diamond buyer will send you a package and insure the return shipment of your diamond jewelry. Please note that no price can be final until the diamond buyer inspects your diamonds/diamond jewelry.

3. determine the value of your diamond

Your diamond jewelry arrive at the processing center  and go through an evaluation process to determine the final value of the diamond jewelry. A gemologist and trained experts grade the diamond according to GIA standards and check the diamond’s overall condition, and the 4Cs; carat, cut, color and clarity. The final price reflects the overall quality of the diamond, the demand for the diamond and the current market price.

4. The final offer is made

Accepting the offer is the final step in the process. Usually a diamond buyer’s quote is good for 5 to 10 business days. If you decide to accept the offer, payment is typically made within 24 hours and  a check, direct deposit, or Paypal payment of your choice. If you decide to reject the offer, your diamond jewelry will be returned to you and insured for the full value at no cost to you.

Use this online diamond appraisal calculator to get an instant initial estimate. And request your Free kits here

Facts about gold

Gold and its alloys

Gold quality is usually defined by karat, with each karat representing 1/24 of the amount of pure gold in an alloy ( as measured by weight ). Thus the higher the karat, the greater the proportion of pure gold there is. the remaining content of an alloy consists of assorted elements that combine to strengthen, provide color, or in a few cases, act as correctives for unwanted properties of other alloying elements.

Pure gold in its natural state is rich, almost buttery yellow, but when alloyed, it can be produced in a range of other colors. Yellow, white, green, and rose/pink golds are available as bulk metals, which are uniform in color throughout an alloy. Some blue and purple golds are also bulk metals; they are very brittle and not commonly used as jewelry alloys.

Chocolate, black and some other colors of gold are often products of surface treatments and coloring. There are also blue, and black golds that are the products of oxidation reactions rather than coating. These alloys contain, cobalt or iron, which greatly reduces ductility but also colors the gold during heat treatment.


14k white gold with black rhodium


Original color, 14k rose/pink gold



18k rose gold casting grains




18k Green gold casting grains


The most frequently used white gold alloys are created with nickel or palladium. Nickel has been the typical bleaching agent for white gold, but widespread nickel sensitivity is changing that. Because of the sensitivities, nickel content is closely regulated in the Europe Union. The wider effect is that nickel content of gold alloys has been reduced. However, the less nickel there is in an alloy, the more yellow gray the alloy will be, and so rhodium plating(about every six months, replating) is used to make the alloy appear white. Degree of whiteness-or, more accurately, paleness-for white gold has not been standardized. Guidelines for the disclosure of rhodium plating to consumers have also not been formalized.  Alternatives to nickel white gold alloys have been and are being developed. Palladium-white golds can be completely free of nickel; these white golds are also likely to be more expensive than the nickel whites.


18k white gold rhodium plated


18k white gold casting grains



18k rose gold casting grains



18k Yellow gold casting grains



24K yellow gold casting grains


The most common types of gold

                            common alloying elements

24K = 99.95%    not applicable

22K = 91.67%     copper, silver, titanium

18K = 75%          copper, silver, nickel, palladium, platinum, zinc

14K = 58.5%       copper, silver, nickel, zinc, silicon

10K = 41.67%     copper, silver, nickel, zinc, silicon


Gold price calculator

Gold market price was $1275 per ounce. One ounce has 31.1 grams

$1275* 31.1 =$40.99 price of pure gold (99.95%)


Jane had 50 grams of 18K scrap gold wanted to sell , and she wanted to know how much it brought her.

$1275 * 31.1 grams = $40.99 pure

$40.99 x 75%(18k) = $30.74

$30.74 x 50 grams = $1537

$1537 is the amount of her 50 grams of 18K gold.


The value of gold is determined by its weight, but keep in mind that
jewelers use a different scale to measure gold weight called the Troy
ounce. U.S scales measure gold using grams per ounce, for example 28
grams per ounce, while in Troy ounces this would be 31.1 grams per
Troy ounce. There’s another system called pennyweight (dwt) that’s
commonly used amongst jewelers. In pennyweight the equivalence would
be 1.555 grams per pennyweight. So now that you understand the scale
for measuring gold, you should stay alert when a dealer decides to
weigh your gold by gram instead of pennyweight or Troy ounce. This is
a shady way for dealers to pay you less for more of your weight of
gold. The more you know, the better.



How to buy a perfect diamond

Buying a diamond has never been easier. But how to buy a perfect diamond is not easy as you think. Each one of us has been spending hours of  hours going through online dealers searching for a perfect diamond, like looking for a needle in a haystack. And not a guarantee that we’ll find the right one. The best way to search for a perfect diamond is to ask  for the referral from friends and families or online referrals, such as diamonds review companies.  Some of these companies are really helpful when looking for diamond onlines.

Focus on workmanship of the diamond, which is the Cut and the clarity- where the inclusions located. Look at the certicate of the diamond(plotting).

Most of us probably have some ideas about diamonds, is not completely blank like about ten years ago. There are so many educational blogs about diamonds online just a click away. We most likely know about the 4Cs; Carat, Cut, Color, and Clarity.

round1.09 Carat HSI1


1.09 H SI1 XXX None,$5200 Sold by James Allen


 1.09 H SI1 XXX None,$5652 sold by Blue Nile

These two diamonds are almost identical, can be used as a matched pair for stud earrings.  As you can see the one from James Allen sold for $5460 and the other from Blue Nile sold for $5652. Both are eye-clean diamond. And if you are out there looking a diamond with the budget 5k to 6k to spend , you would want to go with the one from James Allen has better clarity but only if you don’t mind Fluorescence. If you prefer without Fluorescence then you should go with the one from Blue Nile.

Color and Clarity grades are not absolutes, they are ranges. Assuming you about to purchase a round cut diamond H color , VS2 clarity. Is the ‘H’ closer to the ‘G’ or ‘I’ ? Is the VS2 just miss being a VS1 or SI1? All these factors make a big difference in price. Is not simply a matter of how much the H VS2. There’s a variation in how beautiful a diamond appears if ranked at the high-end of a cut grade versus one at the low-end of the same cut grade, it could be  a 35% differential.
 round1.04 Carat GVS2
 1.04 G VS2 X.X.X
round1.05 Carat GVS2
1.05 G VS2 X.X.X
These two stones above are sold by James Allen, and both are G color and VS2 clarity, but the 1.03 is a better VS2 with excellent cut and excellent symmetry and very good polish,so you want to go with that one instead of the  lower VS2 1.05 excellent cut, polish,and symmetry.
Color and Clarity are not the major considerations in pricing a diamond. The cut plays the biggest role, more than any other factors, cut determines beauty and brilliance. A ‘D’ color even a Flawless diamond may lack beauty and brilliance due to poor cutting. To purchase a diamond that both beautiful and brilliant, search for a stone that’s well proportioned, then the balance color, clarity, and size with your budget. Each color and clarity grade sets a range of prices that overlap. Cut alone may cause as much as 55% variation in price for a specific color and clarity grade. Inherent shortcomings in the diamond may add another 25%. Two diamonds with the same color and clarity and weight could vary in price as much as 70%.
 round1.03 Carat GI1
1.03 Excellent cut G color, I1 clarity, $3190
 round1.02 Carat GI1
1.02 Excellent Cut, G color, I1 clarity, $3310
Obviously, you want to go with the first one 1.02 excellent Cut and also the inclusions blended in made it an eye clean stone, unlike the 1.01 that has black inclusions, it’s very noticeable.
As a smart buyer  you can not purchase diamonds by the numbers alone. We encourage customers to look at the products, (with a 360 degree view), not the Paper/Certificate or let a professional helps. There are so many factors not reflected on the a certificate, tinge of color or the life of stone that make a difference in price. A  tinge of brown, which is why it’s worth much less. The same can be said for the purity. Within a clarity grade, there could be a big price gap between the lowest and highest in the range. Two VS or SI1 grades; one with the black crystal inclusion in the center of the table the other with one small crystal and feather on the side could be more than a 10% difference in price, but it doesn’t mean the cheaper stone is the better deal.

Most popular engagement rings

Solitaire Engagements

Any mounting with single center stone is considering solitaire. Doesn’t matter prongs, bezel, or channel set. Engagement rings don’t have to be diamonds, you can select any stone that you like to be set into your engagement ring. Diamond solitaire engagement is the most popular of all times, simple yet classic and

14K X1 White 6-6.6mm Round Engagement Ring Mounting  14K Rose 6.5mm Round Solitaire Engagement Ring Mounting    14K White 6.5mm Round Solitaire Engagement Ring Mounting


Accented diamond engagements

It’s just like solitaire but just add diamonds on shank, and can be going half, three quarter, or all way around(eternity)the shank is fine as preferred. The 6.5mm round Burmese ruby is eagle claw set, and the color is pigeon blood red, high demanded color for ruby.The ruby ring accented diamonds go half way is perfect for resizing when needed. The contrast colors makes the ruby stand out  But go all the around is problem when sizing. Usually, for half and three quarter way are have no problem when sizing up to 2 sizes(each ring is different), but for sizing down have to be extremely careful because it makes diamonds loose. After sizing down all diamonds have to be tightened, please let your jeweler knows.



Single halo engagements

Center stone can be any kind of gemstones. Diamond is the most popular of course then Sapphire and ruby. These single halo just blend in with the center and make it look like one single center stone from the distance. All these custom made pieces below were made to fit the center perfectly. The diamonds make the the heart-shape stone stand out even more. The heart-shape blue sapphire not only stunning but also quite fitting for an engagement ring, and furthermore is certified by GIA, The World’s Foremost Authority in Gemology. The color of the sapphire is deep  blue, royal blue, No heat. The mounting itself is well-proportioned. The other two mountings are also custom made. The one with the split shank, center is framed by full cut round diamonds in single halo design.




Double halo with accented diamonds

This’s bead set and pave set double halo. Classically elegant with a cushion morganite and oval cut rubies encircled by a double row of bead-set and pave set diamonds. For those who like big look, these double halo are perfect.

Fiery and vibrant in nature, this double rows of pave create the perfect halo on a tailored split shank pave band. A grand look that makes every gal swoon! This design is often custom tailored to the exact size and shape center diamond you select; in those cases, production times may increase. Please note the shape of the halo will follow the shape of the center stone.



A magnificent Couture Double Halo Blue Royal Sapphire ring mounted in Platinum. There are 64 Brilliant cut diamonds set in a closed and open Pave design around the Sapphire and along  the shank. The Cushion shape Royal Sapphire weighs 2.81cts and is certified by GRS.

Blue Sapphire and Diamond Double Halo Platinum Ring, SKU 298227 (3.67Ct TW)

A superb round emerald and diamond ring, set with a 0.65Ct Zambian round green emerald of a beautiful color, and 0.09Ct TW fancy intense yellow round brilliant diamonds around the inner halo. The external halo is set with 0.39Ct collection color white round brilliants.



Diamond price calculator

At Diamond Karma, we’ve developed a pricing matrix to help you understand the value of your diamond. Enter in the key information about your diamond to see approximate retail prices, online prices, peer to peer pricing, and what a diamond buyer or wholesaler might pay for the diamond. Click here to check your value now!

diamond price calculator table

Do you know the carats, color, cut, and clarity of your diamond? Use our simple diamond value calculator to determine what it’s worth!

Want to understand how diamond pricing works? Read on to see how the different attributes of diamonds affect their value in our pricing matrix.

How to calculate the price of a diamond

1. The size of diamond (carat weight)

Carat weight is the measurement of how much a diamond weighs. A metric ‘Carat’ is defined as 200 milligrams. Each carat can be subdivided into 100 points. This allow very precise measurements to the hundredth decimal place. the weight of diamond below one carat can also be described by its ‘points’ alone. Example, a diamond that weighs 0.49 carats could also be referred to as a ‘forty-nine pointer’. Diamond greater  than one carat are expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.03 carats stone would be called/described as ‘one point oh three carats’.

2. Color ( GIA D to Z range )

Diamond Color

The color evaluation of most gem-quality diamonds is based on the absence of color. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond has no hue, and consequently, a higher value. Based on The GIA Color Grading System measures the degree of colorlessness by comparing a stone, under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions, to masterstones of established color value. Many of these color distinctions are so subtle that they are visible to the untrained eye; however, these distinctions make a very big difference in diamond quality and price.

round1.06 Carat EVS2GIA 1.06 E VS2

round1.04 Carat GVS2GIA 1.04 G VS2

The GIA color scale begins with D for colorless and continues through the alphabet to Z light yellow, brown, or gray. A diamond’s color grade is based on its tone and saturation, and requires an assessment of its absence of color. This means that the less yellow, brown, or gray there is in a diamond, the higher its color grade.

Each letter on the scale represents a narrow color range, not a specific point. And each masterstone marks the highest point or least amount of color in the range. A diamond with slightly less color than the I masterstone is considered H color, one with slightly less color than the H masterstone is considered G color and so on. Five diamonds graded H can have five very slightly different amounts of color, but they all must have less color than the I masterstone, and more color than or an equal amount of color to the H. If a diamond has less color than an E masterstone, it’s a D. This means there is no need for a D masterstone.

3. Clarity ( Flawless to I3 range )

The clarity grade characteristics in diamonds come in an endless variety of combinations, so there can never be one single description that automatically describes a grade. Natural diamonds are the result of carbon exposed to tremendous heat and pressure deep in the earth. This process can result in a variety of internal characteristics called ‘inclusions‘ and external characteristics called ‘blemishes‘.

Evaluating diamond clarity involves determining the number, size, relief, nature, and position of these characteristics, as well as these affects the overall appearance of the stone. Many inclusions and blemishes are too tiny to be seen by anyone than a trained diamond grader. To the naked eye, a VS1 and the SI2 diamond may look exactly the same, but these diamonds are quite different in terms of overall quality.

round1.01 Carat FI1

round1.01 Carat FI1

round1.01 Carat HI1

round1.05 Carat HI1

round1.52 Carat FI1

These five diamonds above were graded GIA as I1 clarity from James Allen 

Five factors determine the overall impact that an individual clarity characteristic has on a stone’s appearance and grade. Those factors are;

A. Size–>size has a lot to do with how easy it is to see an inclusio. Generally, the larger and more visible an inclusion is , the lower the diamond’s clarity grade will be. And must consider the size of the inclusion in relation to the size of the diamond. In a diamond with inclusions of different sizes, one or two of larger inclusions usually establish the grade. If there are also smaller inclusions, they seldom affect the clarity grade.

B. Number–>when all other factors are equal, the more inclusions or their reflections you see face up at 10x, the larger the effect on the clarity grade. Because a diamond’s facets act as mirrors, inclusions might be reflected multiple times. Even when a small inclusion is only somewhat easy to see, reflections can make it more apparent. Remember that grades are set by counting them. A diamond with a number of minute pinpoints can still qualify as VVS. On the other hane, a single large, black, or centrally located included crystal could drop the grade into VS, SI, or even I clarity.

C. Position/location–>Inclusions are most visible when they are directly under the table. Inclusions under crown facets or near girdle are usually difficult to see that is why you have to inspect the stone from several angles to find all its characteristics.

D. Relief–>relief is the contrast between an inclusion and its host gem. Relief can vary from high, or more apparent, to low, or less apparent. Usually, the more an inclusion differs in brightness, darkness, or color from its host, the more visible it is and the greater its impact on the clarity grade.

E. Nature–>nature refers to the type of characteristic and its effect on the diamond. Inclusions have more impact on clarity than blemishes. Graders must sometimes refine the clarity grade to a higher or lower level because of nature. Such as, internal graining is an optical irregularity that has far less impact on a diamond’s clarity that a physical break of similar size and appearance. A minute feather would have less impact on clarity than an included crystal of similar size and appearance due to its superficial nature.

Another factor to consider is an inclusion’s potential risk to the stone. Generally, a stone with significant durability problems would not survive the friction and the pressure of the cutting process, so durability rarely affects clarity. However, very deep feathers that extend from the crown to the pavilion, or that penetrate one-third of the way or more into the diamond, pose durability concerns and can lower the grade.

4. The make(Cut grade; Excellent, Very Good, good, Fair, Poor)

The cut plays the biggest role, more than any other factors, cut determines beauty and brilliance. A ‘D’ color even a Flawless diamond may lack beauty and brilliance due to poor cutting. To purchase a diamond that both beautiful and brilliant, search for a stone that’s well proportioned, then the balance color, clarity, and size with your budget. Each color and clarity grade sets a range of prices that overlap. Cut alone may cause as much as 55% variation in price for a specific color and clarity grade.

The cut grading system for standard round brilliant cut diamonds D to Z colors. Standard round brilliant diamonds are evaluated for one of the five possible cut grades: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, poor. Cut grade is determined from a combination of measured parameters and visual observations.

Table size percentage, Pavilion Angle, Crown Angle, Lower Half Length percentage, Star Length, Girdle thickness %, Culet Size , and the degree of painting and /or digging out are all measured. Symmetry, Polish, Girdle Thickness. The combination allows the face-up appearance ( brightness, fire, scintillation, especially pattern seen when viewing a diamond

Excellent cut 1.10  F I1round1.1 Carat FI1

Very good cut 1.01 F I1round1.01 Carat FI1

   Good  Cut    1.20 F  I1round1.2 Carat FI1

size and shape are two aspects of cut that can influence diamond color. The larger a diamond is, or the deeper its pavilion, the farther light can travel in it. This increases the amount of selective absorption that takes place and often leads to a richer, or more intense color.

5. Does it have fluorescence (very Strong, Strong, Medium, Faint)

Fluorescence is the emission of visible light by a material when it is stimulated by ultraviolet UV rays. About 1/3 of diamonds emit some degree of fluorescence. This means that fluorescence, if present, can be one of a diamond’s identifying features. When evaluating a diamond , whether it’s in the D to Z  or the colored diamond range, the grader check to see if it fluoresces.

On the GIA Laboratory Diamond Grading Report, the fluorescence entry is a description, not a grade. The terms used for describing fluorescence are None, Faint, Medium, Strong, and very strong. If the fluorescence is Medium or strong, the grader also notes its color, so a stone might have Medium yellow or strong blue/white fluorescence.

To determine fluorescence, the grader places the diamond a short distance away from a source of long-wave UV radiation. If there’s no obvious fluorescence, or if the fluorescence is insignificant, it gets a classification of None. If a diamond does emit some light, the next step is to describe the degree of fluorescence. It takes experience with seeing many diamonds with varying degree of fluorescence before a grader can accurately describe fluorescence.

Example: if you’re purchasing a 1.03 carats G color and VS2 clarity, list price for 1.00 ct to 1.49 cts is $7900 per carat, you would take the 1.03×7900= 8137. If you purchasing a 1.34 carats would be 1.34×7900=10586 and the discounts between 5 to 20 percents depending the market conditions, availability and the demand of that diamonds.  When you’re ready to buy, contact us we can help you get the most out of your money or visit James Allen

What is an electronic diamond tester?

In today’s diamond market, synthetic diamonds are often hard to distinguish from real stones. Synthetic materials, like cubic zirconia and moissanite, both create an imitation stone that looks much like a real diamond to the naked or untrained eye. Diamond buyers and sellers have come to depend on electronic diamond testers to ensure the diamonds they purchase are genuine. Diamond testers are really useful in checking for diamond imitations. Synthetic stones, such as strontium titanite, or zircon, tend to have high refractive indices. The high refractive indices make the imitations look more like a real diamond than those with low refractive indices, such as glass. The higher the refractive index, the harder it is to differentiate between synthetic and real diamonds. People with no knowledge of gemology often find it very difficult to identify these imitations, making an electronic diamond tester a useful tool. 

There are many diamond testers available on the market. Below is a list of our favorite testers: 

The Presidium DiamondMate-C offers fast, easy and reliable testing. Visual lights and audible beeps make reading results seamless and easy to understand. The thermal conductivity method allows for reliable, precise results. The Presidium DiamondMate-C requires very little battery consumption, allowing for prolonged use without worrying about battery life. As an added feature, this diamond tester also has a built-in metal detector that beeps when it comes in contact with metal.  
GemOro Superior Instruments Testerossa Diamond Tester
The GemOro Superior Instruments Testerossa Tester is the next generation of diamond testers. Featuring a fast 10 second warm-up, glowing light bar/probe tip for quick stone identification. Results can be delivered through programmable languages or various ringtones. This innovative tester has the sleekest ergonomic shape available, allowing it to comfortably rest in your hand. The LED stone illumination and UV fluorescence detection allows for fast, reliable and easy use. Precision retractable probe-tip with enhanced durability, and indestructible polycarbonate housing with molded rubber base make this diamond tester impact resistant. The tester is powered by a micro-USB or with the included rechargeable NiMH batteries.  

How to use a Diamond Tester

Most testers are easy to use. They work by pressing a metal point against a facet of a stone. The metal point heats up. The tester then detects the rate at which heat transfers through the stone. The way heat transfers through a synthetic material, such as cubic zirconia, greatly differs from how it transfers through a real diamond.  The diamond tester will then give a signal that indicates if the stone is genuine or not. Using a diamond tester is fairly simple, but below you can find a list of tips that will be helpful if you’re using a tester for the first time: 

  1. Most important, the stone must be cool before using the diamond tester. A person’s body temperature can warm a diamond sufficiently just by wearing it. This will affect the reliability of the test. If a genuine diamond is too warm when tested, it may result in an inaccurate reading. If the stone was being worn, remove the stone from the person’s body and allow it time to cool. You can also cool down the diamond by spraying it with an upside-down can of compressed air, or placing it under cold water and wiping it dry prior to testing.

Gemlogis Lapis One | new product sold by Stuller  

Gemlogis Lapis One Electronic Diamond Tester
  1. An adjacent diamond cannot be tested right away. You cannot get a reliable reading if you consecutively test stones that are adjacent to one another, because the electrical charge transfers heat through the entire stone, as well as any adjacent stones. Since the adjacent stones are now warm, the tester may give a false reading.  After testing the first stone, allow time for the stones to cool, and then repeat the process for all adjacent stones.
  2. Stones cannot be retested immediately. The stone will still be warm from the initial testing and needs time to cool down. 
  3. Be sure the pointer is not touching metal. Electronic diamond testers will not work properly if the point is touching any metal, such as a bezel edge or a prong. Be sure the point is not in contact with metal. Some models have a metal detector to warn you of nearby metal.
  4. Keep the battery well charged. If the battery is not well charged, you might not get an accurate reading. Most models now have an indicator that tells you if the battery is insufficiently charged, but remember to check before you begin testing.

When is the best time to buy a diamond?

Diamond is forever and so precious. Diamond is a girl’s best friend. Whenever you think you are ready to buy a diamond do your homework gather all information before buying.  All of us want to buy things at the lowest price possible, it doesn’t matter what it is. But make no mistake we want to buy it right. Based on my experience, the best time to buy a diamond is around summer time( mid June to mid August). Researched and based on the current market condition. This’s the time when people planning for vacation, traveling. no one wants to spend money on diamond jewelry.  It’s considering slow for the dealers and the best time for some people that are looking to shop for diamonds.  Avoid Valentine’s day, Mother’s day, Black Friday , Cyber Monday, and Christmas. Those are the time that diamond dealers and jewelers make the most from consumers.


Give yourself a good amount of time to shop for diamonds, please do not rush to buy and be flexible, what i mean by flexible is, let’s say you were thinking to buy a 1 carat G color and VS2 clarity for your girlfriend soon to be your fiance, and the dealer you know doesn’t have that specific stone in hands , he/she only have the 1 carat H color and SI1 (which is one color and one clarity grade lower), so go for it, like that you can definitely get better deal rather than the dealer has to find the G color and  VS2 clarity for you. Its also save you some money too, because the H color and SI1 clarity list price is lower than the G color and VS2 clarity, considering all other factors are the same. Diamonds never go out of season. Unlike electronics or vehicles, for instance like a new car dealer would give you discount for the last year models. Diamonds don’t have seasonal sales or whatsoever. Jewelry prices never at their lowest price, they only make you think you get better deal.  Right now, economy is terrible at the moment, if you haven’t noticed. The stores are hurting.

At any time, even during a sale, at whatever store you are shopping at, or online if you see something you really like, ask if it is their best price. Especially at the present time with the economy being so bad. They will say yes most of the time if the price you offer is reasonable, they don’t want to miss the opportunity to sell to you. Be smart and shop around and find out why some diamonds are priced so much higher than others. The reason is the quality of the diamond and you should learn how to distinguish a quality stone from a piece of junk. Also, stay out of department stores and discount stores, such as Costco. They don’t know about diamonds. They are only salespeople. You can find out more info here or if you need help find the best diamond engagement ring for your love ones, we can help you. We offer free consultation! Send us an email here